The purpose of this paper is to examine this phenomenon empirically. More specifically, the study investigates what kinds of autobiographical episodes are triggered by music that respondents self-selected as examples of this phenomenon, what characterizes these instances, and what is the relationship between the emotions descriptive of the original experience and the emotions aroused by hearing the piece of music.
Little empirical evidence exists, however, to explain the processes by which the self-referencing done by consumers during these ads affects persuasion. Moreover, extant studies which build on an episodic, piecemeal view of self-referencing provide inconsistent results on product evaluation.
We propose that autobiographical memories ads are more similar to semantic memory than episodic memory, and that they influence evaluation by invoking schemas that filter self-referencing.
A study designed to test the competing explanations supported a schema-based interpretation of the persuasive impact of autobiographical memories in advertising. This effect has led researchers to characterize ads which evoke autobiographical memories as representative of episodic rather than semantic memory Baumgartener et al.
Research has tended to indicate that the presentation of an autobiographical memories ad causes consumers to focus their attention on idiosyncratic experiences associated with a specific past event.
This effect leads to an increase in positive affect because people tend to bias their recall in terms of positive memories, and then transfer the positive affect to the product, resulting in a favorable product evaluation Sujan et al. Though this explanation may seem plausible, few studies have actually examined how self-referencing and affect lead to persuasion.
Additionally, the studies currently available have found mixed support for the effectiveness of these ads. In one study Sujan et al.
In a different study, the same authors found that the autobiographical memory ad led to a higher evaluation of the ad, but not the product Baumgartner et al. In both studies, however, affect levels increased during the presentation of these ads.
If self-referencing via autobiographical memories results in a more favorable product evaluation, then one might expect that the more autobiographical memories consumers recall, the more they will like the product.
Existing studies, however, have found no link between the proportion of autobiographical memories consumers report and product evaluation. In fact, the results of these two studies suggest that episodic self-referencing of a past event does not occur spontaneously with any great frequency among subjects.
Thus, our understanding of the processes which determine the persuasive impact of autobiographical memories ads remains unclear.
In this paper we propose that the persuasive process underlying autobiographical memories ads is more representative of semantic memory or a category-based process rather than episodic memory.
Further, we hypothesize that retrieving a unique past memory after viewing an autobiographical memories can encourage an attribute-based process and reduces persuasion. In the following sections we develop and test hypotheses about the nature of the processes by which autobiographical memories ads may influence persuasion through affect and cognition.
To develop our argument for a semantic memory explanation, we briefly review two models that have implications for the reciprocal processes of cognition and affect.
Fiske suggests that to the extent that an instance is perceived to fit the schema, it will receive the affect linked to that category. Thus, stimulus that is perceived as a consistent vs.
This matching effect has been demonstrated for a variety of person schemas: In a marketing context, the schema-triggered affect model suggests that if a consumer can easily categorize a product initially into a previously learned category label e. As a result, product evaluation is determined by the category label, rather than by product attributes.
Positive affect can also encourage a category-based process. Isen and Daubman report that positive affect tends to broaden categories, leading subjects to see items as more similar than do subjects in a neutral mood.In storyboarding an autobiographical memory, the brain combines fragments of sensory memory with a more abstract knowledge about events, and reassembles them according to the demands of the present.
More so than any recent book I can remember, Alexander Chee's How To Write An Autobiographical Novel has changed the way I read, the way I think, and hopefully, the way I write. This is a must-read for anyone attempting /5().
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The identity function of autobiographical memory: Time is on our side Anne Wilsona; Michael Rossb a Psychology Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3C5 Canada..
b University of Waterloo, Canada. Thus, our understanding of the processes which determine the persuasive impact of autobiographical memories ads remains unclear. In this paper we propose that the persuasive process underlying autobiographical memories ads is more representative of semantic memory or a category-based process rather than episodic memory.
o autobiographical memories Identify THREE major autobiographical memories, and look for organizing themes (first-time experiences, traumatic events, etc.). For each of the three, discuss why each event was remembered so vividly.