History[ edit ] Rugby league foundations[ edit ] Rugby league, which had started in England in and spread to Wales in and Australia and New Zealand inwas introduced into France in after their rugby union side was banned from the International Rugby Board for both breaching amateur regulations and for constant foul play on the field. In the view of Harry Edgar, from the Board's establishment "until his death inBill Fallowfield was a dominant figure in its activities.
Rugby union The rapid spread of rugby union throughout many parts of the British Empire led to the establishment of the International Rugby Football Board since the International Rugby Board ; IRB in to determine the laws of the game and settle any disputes that arose between countries.
In classic imperial fashion, the RFU held six seats on the board, and the other member unions held two each. In representation changed to two seats each for member countries, but when Argentina, Canada, Italy, and Japan joined inthey received only one seat each on the board. The IRB became the recognized international governing body and has been active since its formation in policing and modifying the laws of the game.
Test international matches a series of two or more games between national teams have historically been the pinnacle of rugby union. In a British team toured New Zealand and Australia, and in an English team toured South Africa, thus beginning the pattern of international competition in rugby union.
Colonial rugby tours of the British Isles by official national teams began with visits by New Zealand inSouth Africa in andand Australia in In the New Zealanders shocked the British media as they won every match leading up to their final Test against Wales, overwhelming some good English teams by 40 to 60 points.
In the first tour by the South African team, known as the Springboks, was nearly as successful, as they defeated Wales. In the Australians also played well and won the Olympic gold medal in London. After the successes of the first New Zealand and South African touring teams in Britain, most observers thought the two countries were the leading exponents of the game.
Competition between them soon became recognized as the unofficial world championship. When the All Blacks and Springboks met in andboth series ended in draws, and it was not untilwhen South Africa triumphed in a series in New Zealand, that debates about the better team first were resolved.
Competition with Australia also became important, especially for New Zealand. New Zealand has largely dominated the competition, though Australia enjoyed an extended run of Bledisloe Cup victories between and The first tour by the British Lions now called the British and Irish Lions —as that composite team of players from England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland was known—took place inwhen they lost to South Africa.
The Lions have existed only to undertake international tours of South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand and were not particularly successful against the Southern Hemisphere powers untilwhen they defeated New Zealand. That success was followed by their famous series win against South Africa during their undefeated tour in In the last quarter of the 20th century, touring continued to be popular for rugby union teams.
South American teams became a new force, even beating the team from South Africa. Romania also rose in stature as a touring team, winning the European Nations Cup.
Rugby union continued to grow as an international game, highlighted by such new tournaments as the Pacific Rim Championship and the African Top Six Tournaments.
The World Cup has been held at regular four-year intervals since New Zealand won the inaugural cup, and the Australian team, the Wallabies, became the first team to win two World Cups The three Southern Hemisphere powers along with England and France dominated the early history of the World Cup, with each team reaching the final on multiple occasions.
However, rapid improvement by countries such as Argentina and Samoa have expanded the next level of competitive national teams. In the professional era, competitions at club, provincial, and national levels have increased.
The Southern Hemisphere season centres on the Super Rugby provincial competition between teams from Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina, and the Northern Hemisphere exception Japan, followed by the Rugby Championship series between national teams from those countries other than Japan.
Indeed, the professional era has led to conflicts between clubs and national unions. In the Southern Hemisphere leading players are signed to both national and Super Rugby contracts, whereas in England players are contracted to their clubs, as is the case in English professional association football.
Another, more-recent and less-prestigious, annual Northern Hemisphere competition is the Americas Rugby Championship, which features national teams from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, the United States, and Uruguay. Rugby league In rugby league, major competitions are held in England and Australia, and the pinnacle of the game has been international tours involving the Australian and British national teams, along with the Rugby League World Cupwhich began in in France and has been held at irregular intervals since then.
Australia won six consecutive World Cups between andestablishing itself as the international powerhouse in rugby league. The rugby league World Cup, held in Britain, featured teams from 16 countries.
Rugby league saw tremendous growth in the Pacific area during the s; Fiji, Samoa, the Cook IslandsTonga, and Japan all field league teams. Rugby sevens Another popular form of rugby, a variation of rugby union, is rugby sevens. It is played on a standard-sized rugby union field but with only seven players on each side.
At 15 minutes, the length of a rugby sevens match is also much shorter than its minute rugby union counterpart. Rugby sevens became an Olympic sport in Women and rugby While rugby was being professionalized during the s, a parallel revolution was under way in the sport.
Because the relationship between masculinity and rugby has been passed between fathers and sons, and rugby participation became synonymous with learning to be a man in the public schools of England and the private schools in the settler societies of the British Empire, women historically were excluded from playing competitive rugby.The Rugby League International Federation (RLIF) is the global governing body for the sport of rugby league football.
The RLIF is responsible for the Laws of the Game, the development, organisation and governance of rugby leagues internationally, and for the sport's major international tournaments; most notably the Rugby League World Cup.
Council/EXCO/RWC Board/Staff first test for the All Blacks in Nelson and the potential for Australia to slip to their lowest-ever position in the World Rugby Rankings.
but all other international matches, friendly or competitive, are treated the same across the world. Revert to latest. World Rugby, previously known as the International Rugby Board (IRB), was founded in and has its headquarters in Dublin, Ireland.
Recognised by the International Olympic Committee as the International Federation responsible for the sport of rugby, World Rugby . Council/EXCO/RWC Board/Staff South Africa, while New Zealand go three from three with victory over Los Pumas to stay well clear at the top of the World Rugby Rankings.
but all other international matches, friendly or competitive, are treated the same across the world. Revert to latest. Council/EXCO/RWC Board/Staff The World Rugby U20 Trophy final will be an all-Pacific Islands affair with Samoa and Fiji meeting to not only determine the champion but also the side who will be promoted to the U20 Championship next year.
World Rugby Rankings. How are the International fixtures impacting the World Rugby Rankings. World Rugby was founded as the International Rugby Football Board (IRFB) in by Scotland, Wales and Ireland, with England joining in The body was renamed the International Rugby Board (IRB) in , and took up its current name of World Rugby in November Region served: Worldwide.