There are a number of influences on how many interviews a researcher may conduct: If the interviewer can travel only within a limited area, then there is a geographical limitation on the sample. For example, Stoodleylimited his travel to Southeast Queensland due to resourcing p. Such a geographical limit imposes a cultural limit on a sample.
Abstract In gerontology the most recognized and elaborate discourse about sampling is generally thought to be in quantitative research associated with survey research and medical research.
But sampling has long been a central concern in the social and humanistic inquiry, albeit in a different guise suited to the different goals. There is a need for more explicit discussion of qualitative sampling issues.
This article will outline the guiding principles and rationales, features, and practices of sampling in qualitative research. It then describes common questions about sampling in qualitative research.
In conclusion Types of sampling in qualitative research proposes the concept of qualitative clarity as a set of principles analogous to statistical power to guide assessments of qualitative sampling in a particular study or proposal.
Questions of what is an appropriate research sample are common across the many disciplines of gerontology, albeit in different guises. The basic questions concern what to observe and how many observations or cases are needed to assure that the findings will contribute useful information. Throughout the history of gerontology, the most recognized and elaborate discourse about sampling has been associated with quantitative research, including survey and medical research.
But concerns about sampling have long been central to social and humanistic inquiry e. The authors argue such concerns remained less recognized by quantitative researchers because of differing focus, concepts, and language. Recently, an explicit discussion about concepts and procedures for qualitative sampling issues has emerged.
Despite the growing numbers of textbooks on qualitative research, most offer only a brief discussion of sampling issues, and far less is presented in a critical fashion Gubrium and Sankar ; Werner and Schoepfle ; Spradley; Strauss and Corbin ; Trotter ; but cf.
The goal of this article is to extend and further refine the explicit discussion of sampling issues and techniques for qualitative research in gerontology.
Throughout the article, the discussion draws on a variety of examples in aging, disability, ethnicity as well as more general anthropology. The significance of the need to understand qualitative sampling and its uses is increasing for several reasons.
These data are best provided by qualitative approaches. In gerontology, the historical focus on aging pathology obscured our view of the role of culture and personal meanings in shaping how individuals at every level of cognitive and physical functioning personally experience and shape their lives.
A second significance to enhancing our appreciation of qualitative approaches to sampling is related to the societal contexts of the scientific enterprise. Shifts in public culture now endorse the inclusion of the experiences and beliefs of diverse and minority segments of the population.
A reflection of these societal changes is the new institutional climate for federally funded research, which mandates the inclusion and analysis of data on minorities.
Qualitative approaches are valuable because they are suited to assessing the validity of standardized measures and analytic techniques for use with racial and ethnic subpopulations. They also permit us to explore diversities in cultural and personal beliefs, values, ideals, and experiences.
It describes the scientific implications of the cultural embeddedness of sampling issues as a pervasive feature in wider society.
It concludes by proposing an analog to statistical power, qualitative clarity, as a set of principles to guide assessments of the sampling techniques in a study report or research proposal.
The term clarity was chosen to express the goal of making explicit the details of how the sample was assembled, the theoretical assumptions, and the practical constraints that influenced the sampling process.
Qualitative clarity should include at least two components, theoretical grounding and sensitivity to context. The concept focuses on evaluating the strength and flexibility of the analytic tools used to develop knowledge during discovery procedures and interpretation.
These can be evaluated even if the factors to be measured cannot be specified. A wide range of opinions about sampling exists in the qualitative research community. The authors take issue with qualitative researchers who dismiss these as irrelevant or even as heretical concerns.
The authors also disagree with those quantitative practitioners who dismiss concerns about qualitative sampling as irrelevant in general on the grounds that qualitative research provides no useful knowledge. It is suggested that such a position is untenable and uninformed.
This article focuses only on qualitative research; issues related to combined qualitative and quantitative methods are not discussed.
The focus is on criteria for designing samples; qualitative issues related to suitability of any given person for research are not addressed. Criteria Two issues relate to the individual subjects in terms of cooperativeness, rapport, and suitability for qualitative study methods.
Although this article may appear to overly dichotomize qualitative and quantitative approaches, this was done strictly for the purposes of highlighting key issues in a brief space.
The authors write here from the perspective of researchers who work extensively with both orientations, singly and in combination, in the conduct of major in-depth and longitudinal research grants that employ both methods. Contributions, Logic and Issues in Qualitative Sampling Major contributions Attention to sampling issues has usually been at the heart of anthropology and of qualitative research since their inception.
Much work was devoted to evaluating the appropriateness of theory, design strategies, and procedures for sampling.
Important contributions have been made by research devoted to identifying and describing the nature of sample universes and the relevant analytic units for sampling. Kinship studies aim to determine the fundamental culturally defined building blocks of social relationships of affiliation and descent e.
Ethnographic investigations document the diversity of kinship structures, categories of kith and kin, and terminologies that give each culture across the globe its distinctive worldview, social structure, family organization, and patterns to individual experiences of the world.
Concerns with sampling in qualitative research focus on discovering the scope and the nature of the universe to be sampled. Thus the important contributions of qualitative work derived from concerns with validity and process may be seen as addressing core concerns of sampling, albeit in terms of issues less typically discussed by quantitative studies.This book is about discovering theory from data, what Glaser and Strauss call grounded theory.
The major strategy they use is a general method of comparative analysis. Monitoring, Evaluation, Accountability and Learning (MEAL) 6 Methods of data collection and analysis Keywords: Qualitative methods, quantitative methods. Since sampling is not required in qualitative researches, I want to know if there is any minimum-maximum criteria for the number of interviews to be done to meet the research objectives in a.
Differences. Only measurable data are being gathered and analyzed in quantitative research.. Qualitative research focuses on gathering of mainly verbal data rather than measurements. Gathered information is then analyzed in an interpretative manner, subjective, impressionistic or even diagnostic.
The following guidelines are provided for submissions reporting case study research aimed at understanding a bounded phenomenon by examining in depth, and in a holistic manner, one or more particular instances of the phenomenon.
Since sampling is not required in qualitative researches, I want to know if there is any minimum-maximum criteria for the number of interviews to be done to meet the research objectives in a. The following guidelines are provided for submissions reporting case study research aimed at understanding a bounded phenomenon by examining in depth, and in a holistic manner, one or more particular instances of the phenomenon. Case study research in TESOL and second language acquisition (SLA) has. Qualitative research is a vast and complex area of methodology that can easily take up whole textbooks on its own. The purpose of this section is to introduce you to the idea of qualitative research (and how it is related to quantitative research) and give you some orientation to the major types of qualitative research data, approaches and methods.
Case study research in TESOL and second language acquisition (SLA) has. As part of CASRO's great series of webinars, John Bremer of The NPD Group discussed "Elements of Non-Probability Seminar."Besides touching on probability sampling, sample matching, and calibration, he presented an excellent taxonomy of the different types of non-probability sampling.